Todays fitness blog looks at setting cardio-vascular training programmes. Many personal trainers and sports conditioners will use interval training, as it allows their clients to work at a higher intensity and achieve more targeted results.
Intervals comprise of work followed by recovery for a pre planned period of time. The work period can be followed by either active rest, where there is still dynamic movement but at a reduced rate, or passive rest, where the client is essentially still and resting. Usually between 5-10 repetitions are completed with the use of sets also applicable for some forms of training.
Types of Intervals
Depending on the specific goal, a personal trainer will devise the appropriate interval training programme. All three primary energy systems, Creatine Phosphate, Aerobic and Lactate can be targeted using interval training.
Creatine Phosphate Intervals – Helps develop explosive power, working at high intensities (90-100% VO2max) for short periods of time (0-10 seconds)
Lactic Acid Intervals – Helps develop an ability to deal with lactic acid (hydrogen ions) build up and maintain moderate to high intensities (70 – 90% VO2max) for prolonged periods of time (1-3 minutes).
Aerobic Intervals – Can be used to taper intensity of a training programme and are often used as recovery sessions or as conditioning sessions for the de-conditioned. They also allow for maximal enjoyment for the client with minimal boredom and discomfort while ensuring fitness progression, higher calorie burning and a sense of achievement. These periods of work and rest are normally between 1-5 minutes and at an intensity of 60-70% VO2max.
A personal trainer will devise an interval training programme depending on their client’s fitness: someone new to the gym will obviously follow a different regime from a professional athlete. Variables of interval programme design could include the targeted energy system, work and rest period ratios, intensities, reps and sets.
To improve a client’s creatine phosphate anaerobic energy system, a personal trainer will have them working maximally at 90-100% of their VO2Max for a duration of 5-15 seconds. As this involves working at high intensity, the ratio of recovery will need to be relatively high, for example 1:6. So a client might work for 10 seconds and recover for 60 seconds. In sports training, this is particularly effective for anyone competing over short distances, such as a 100m sprinter or a short-distance track cyclist. Activities where maximal recruitment of fast twitch muscle fibres are needed for short periods of time will benefit from this method of training.
To create lactic acid the duration will need to be longer: anything from 30 seconds up to 2-3 minutes, depending on how well conditioned the client is. For a shorter work period, the intensity could be as high as 85-90% VO2Max; for an longer work duration it should be closer to 70-85% VO2Max.
The ratio of work to rest should be from 1:2 up to 1:4. So a personal trainer will devise an interval training programme where the client works for one minute and recovers for four minutes.
The final interval training ratio is for aerobic fitness, which facilitates aerobic endurance and stamina. Here, the client would work on a broader RPE scale depending on the length of training and fitness level of the client: anything from 3-4 up to 6-7. The ratio would be 1:1 or lower, so a one-minute run would be followed by a one-minute rest period. The rest period could be half the time of the work period as the intensity should be more manageable targeting the aerobic system in the whole part. Shorter rest period are required as there is a lack of lactate acid building up.
Personal trainers can also programme in a number of reps and sets to allow the client to increase the volume of work without increasing the intensity. With lactic acid training at a ratio of 1:4, the client might work for one minute and recover for four minutes and then repeat that four times, making four reps in one set. In time, the trainer might increase the volume of reps in a set, so the client could carry out five reps for each set. The number of sets can then be increased for a higher volume of work.
An alternative approach is to reduce the recovery period. For example in the above the rest period of four minutes could be reduced to 3.5 minutes altering the ratio of 1:4 to 1:3.5. This allows for less recovery between work periods and increases the frequency of work demands on the cardio-vascular and muscular systems therefore increasing the intensity.
A further option includes the increasing of the work or rest intensity and completing the same reps / sets and ratio of work to rest.
Different approaches will work better with differing client of differing motivations and goals. But it is fun to experiment.
Personal trainers will generally recommend interval training rather than exercising at a steady rate (LSD training). Interval training requires the body to generate more energy and therefore take in more oxygen to generate it. When a body is unable to take in more oxygen, energy starts to be created through the lactate system. During the recovery periods, the heart rate remains high to continue to supply the body with oxygen to “neutralise” the lactic acid produced (the EPOC or Excessive Post-exercise Oxygen Consumption effect). The overall effect of this training system is an increase in calories burnt in relation to LSD training for the same duration.
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